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Emergency Medicine Bibliography

Citations:
Bhagat, C.I., Garcia-Webb, P., Fletcher, E., Beilby, J.P. Calculated versus Measured Plasma Osmolalities Revisited. Clinical Chemistry, 30(10):1703 1984

Boyd, D.R., Mansberger, A.R., Serum Water and Osmolal Changes in Hemorrhagic Shock: An Experimental and Clinical Study, Am Surgeon, 34: 744 (1968)

Dorwart, W.V., Chalmers, L., Comparison of Methods for Calculating Serum Osmolality from Chemical Concentrations, and the Prognostic Value of Such Computations, Clinical Chemistry, 21: 190 (1975)

Eskew, L., Speicher, C.E., Using Anion and Osmolal Gaps to Diagnose the Cause of Intoxication, Diagnostic Medicine, p. 6 February 1985

Evans, J.R., Osmolal Gaps in Urine, Clinical Chemistry, 32(7): 1415 (1986)

Evans, J.R., Yet More on Osmolal Gaps in Urine, Clinical Chemistry, 33(5): 736 (1987)

Garg, A.K., Nanji, A.A., Osmolar Gap, Diagnostic Medicine, p. 38 Mar/Apr 1982

Neary, R.H., More on Osmolal Gaps in Urine, Clinical Chemistry, 32(12): 2225 (1986)

Osterloh, J.D., Discrepancies in osmolal gaps and calculated alcohol concentrations -see comments-. Archives of Pathology Laboratory Medicine 1996; 120: 637-41.

Soloway, H.B., What is an osmotic gap, and how is it used in diagnosis?, Diagnostic Medicine, p. 20 Nov/Dec 1983

Speicher, C.E., Anion and Osmolal Gaps, Consultation Casebook, Pathologist, 2: 117 (1984)

Walker, J.A., Missing gap: pitfall in the diagnosis of alcohol intoxication by osmometry. Archives of Internal Medicine 1986; 146: 1843-4.

Weisberg, H.F., Osmolality: Calculated, "Delta" and More Formulas. Clinical Chemistry, 21: 1182 (1975)





Drug Intoxication Screening:

1. Bekeris, L., Baker, C., Fenton, J., Kimball, D., et al. Propylene Glycol as a Cause of Elevated Serum Osmolality. Am. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 72 (4): 633, October 1979.

2. Cate, J.C., Propylene Glycol Intoxication and Lactic Acidosis. NEJM, 303 (21): 1237.

3. Chan, K-M, Ethylene Glycol, Isopropanol, and Methanol. Clinical Chemistry News, p. 18, May 1989.

4. Glasser, L., Sternglanz, P.D., Combie, J., Robinson, A., Serum Osmolality and Its Applicability to Drug Overdose. Am. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 60: 695, November 1973.

5. Peterson, C.D., Collins, A.J., Himes, J.M., Bullock, et al. Ethylene Glycol Poisoning, NEJM, 304 (1): 21 January 1981.

6. Stern, E.L., Serum Osmolality in Cases of Poisoning (letter), NEJM, p. 1026, 2 May 1974.


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Head Injury:

Mannitol in Cerebral Edema
Cosgray, R.; Davidhizar, R.; Giger, J. N.; Kreisl, R.: A program for water-intoxicated patients at a state hospital; Clin Nurse Spec, Vol. 7: No. 2; 1993 Mar; pp. 55-61.

Trost, H.A.; Gaab, M.R.: Plasma osmolality, osmoregulation and prognosis after head injury;
Acta Neurochir (Wien); Vol.116: No.1; 1992; pp.33-7.

Gullans, S.R., Verbalis, J.G.: Control of brain volume during hyperosmolar and hypoosmolar conditions; Annu Rev Med; Vol. 44; 1993; pp. 289-301.

Dufour, D. Robert, The National Basis for Use of and Underappreciated Diagnostic Tool, AACC Meeting, July 12, 1993.

Schmidley, J., Sander, J., Diamond, I, Fishman, R.A., New England Journal of Medicine, p. 106. July 12, 1979.

Schmidley, J., Sander, J., Diamond, I, Fishman, R.A., New England Journal of Medicine, p. 106. July 12, 1979.

Dufour, D. Robert, The National Basis for Use of and Underappreciated Diagnostic Tool, AACC Meeting, July 12, 1993.

Newman, Stephen, New England Journal of Medicine, p. 946, October 25, 1979.

Statland, Bernard E., MLO, July 1962, P. 17, "Tips on Technology".



Coma/Burns:

Settle, J.A.D., Urine Output Following Severe Burns. Jnl. Int. Soc. For Burn Injury, 1 (1) September 1974


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Quality Control
:
Kamel, K. S.; Ethier, J. H.; Richardson, R. M.; Bear, R. A.; Halperin, M. L..: Urine electrolytes and osmolality: when and how to use them; Am J Nephrol; Vol. 10: No. 2; 1990; pp. 89-102

Law, R. 0.: Regulation of mammalian brain cell volume; J Exp Zool; Vol. 268: No. 2; 1994; pp. 90-6


Trachtman, H.: Cell volume regulation: a review of cerebral adaptive mechanisms and implications for clinical treatment of osmolal disturbances: II; Pediatr Nephrol; Vol. 6: No. 1; 1992; pp.104-12 .

Emergency Medicine
Osterloh JD. Discrepancies in osmolal gaps and calculated alcohol concentrations -see comments-. Archives of Pathology Laboratory Medicine 1996; 120: 637-41.

Walker JA. Missing gap: pitfall in the diagnosis of alcohol intoxication by osmometry. Archives of Internal Medicine 1986; 146: 1843-4.

Braggion F. Pediatric emergency laboratory. Z Medical Lab Diagn 1991; 32: 159-62.

Emergency Medicine Bulletin Board. Isopropyl Alcohol.
http://www.embbs.com/cr/alc/alc5.html


Osmol Gap
Bhagat, C.I., Garcia-Webb, P., Fletcher, E., Beilby, J.P. Calculated versus Measured Plasma Osmolalities Revisited. Clinical Chemistry, 30(10):1703 1984

Boyd, D.R., Mansberger, A.R., Serum Water and Osmolal Changes in Hemorrhagic Shock: An Experimental and Clinical Study, Am Surgeon, 34: 744 (1968)

Dorwart, W.V., Chalmers, L., Comparison of Methods for Calculating Serum Osmolality from Chemical Concentrations, and the Prognostic Value of Such Computations, Clinical Chemistry, 21: 190 (1975)

Eskew, L., Speicher, C.E., Using Anion and Osmolal Gaps to Diagnose the Cause of Intoxication, Diagnostic Medicine, p. 6 February 1985

Evans, J.R., Osmolal Gaps in Urine, Clinical Chemistry, 32(7): 1415 (1986)

Evans, J.R., Yet More on Osmolal Gaps in Urine, Clinical Chemistry, 33(5): 736 (1987)

Garg, A.K., Nanji, A.A., Osmolar Gap, Diagnostic Medicine, p. 38 Mar/Apr 1982

Neary, R.H., More on Osmolal Gaps in Urine, Clinical Chemistry, 32(12): 2225 (1986)

Soloway, H.B., What is an osmotic gap, and how is it used in diagnosis?, Diagnostic Medicine, p. 20 Nov/Dec 1983

Speicher, C.E., Anion and Osmolal Gaps, Consultation Casebook, Pathologist, 2: 117 (1984)

Weisberg, H.F., Osmolality: Calculated, "Delta" and More Formulas. Clinical Chemistry, 21: 1182 (1975)


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Internal Medicine / Endocrinology Bibliography

Soupart, A. and G. Decaux. "Therapeutic Recommendations for Management of Severe Hyponatremia: Current Concepts of Pathogenesis and Prevention of Neurologic Complications." Clinical Nephrology 46 (1996): 149-169.

Argent, N.B., Burrell, L.M., Goodship, T.H.J., et al, Osmoregulation of Thirst and Vvasopressin Release in Severe Chronic Renal Failure. Kidney International, 39:295 1991

Berl, T., Psychosis and Water Balance. New England Journal of Medicine, 318(7):441 1988

Dashe, A.M., A Water Deprivation Test for the Differential Diagnosis of Polyuria. JAMA, 185:699 1963

Deaux, E., Kakolewski, J.W., Emotionally Induced Increases in Effective Osmotic Pressure and Subsequent Thirst. Science, 169:1226 1970

Price, J.E.E., Lauener, R.W., Serum and Urine Osmolalities in the Differential Diagnosis of Polyuric States. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology, 26:143

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Urology / Renal Function Bibliography

Russo, D.. "Randomized Prospective Study on Renal Effects of Two Different Contrast Media in Humans; Protective Role of a Calcium Channel Blocker." Nephron 55 (1990): 254-257.

Roberts, S.B., Ferland, G., et al: Objective verification of dietary intake by measurement of urinary osmolality; Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 54: 774-82

Argent, N.B., Burrell, L.M., Goodship, T.H.J., et al, Osmoregulation of Thirst and Vvasopressin Release in Severe Chronic Renal Failure. Kidney International, 39:295 1991

Berl, T., Psychosis and Water Balance. New England Journal of Medicine, 318(7):441 1988

Dashe, A.M., A Water Deprivation Test for the Differential Diagnosis of Polyuria. JAMA, 185:699 1963

Deaux, E., Kakolewski, J.W., Emotionally Induced Increases in Effective Osmotic Pressure and Subsequent Thirst. Science, 169:1226 1970

Price, J.E.E., Lauener, R.W., Serum and Urine Osmolalities in the Differential Diagnosis of Polyuric States. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology, 26:143

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Biotechnology Bibliography

Tissue Culture
Hansen TD, Warner DS, et al. Plasma Osmolality and Brain Water Content in a Rat Glioma Model. Neurosurgery 1994; 34: 505-511.

Isabelle ME, Githens S, et al. Culture of rat renal medullary tissue in media made hyperosmotic with NaCI and urea. Journal of Experimental Zoology 1994; 269 (4): 308?18

Katsirdakis KC. Modified Culture Conditions for Increased Viability and Cell Wall Synthesis in Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L. cv. Sultanina) Leaf Protoplasts. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 1992; 28: 255-260.

Kimura R. Effects of Elevated pCO2 and/or Osmolality on the Growth and Recombinant tPA Production of CHO Cells. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1996; 52: 152-160.

Levin EG, Santell L, et al. Hyperosmotic Stress Stimulates Tissue Plasminogen Activator Expression by a PKC-Independent Pathway. American Journal of Physiology 1993; 265: C387-C395.

Lif TI. FAQs on Insect Cell Culture-Growth. http://www2.lifetech.com/catalog/techline/cell_culture/faqs/faqgrowth.html 1995;.

Marcum KB, Murdoch CL. Salt tolerance of the coastal salt marsh grass, Sporobolus virginicus (L). New Phytologist 1992; 120 (2): 281?288.

Miller WM, Kimura R. Glycosylation of CHO?derived recombinant tPA produced under elevated pCO2. Biotechnology Progress 1997; 13 (3): 311?17.

Miller, W.M., deZengotita, V.M., et al: Characterization of hybridoma cell responses to elevated pCO2 and osmolality: Intracellular pH, cell size, apoptosis, and metabolism; Biotechnology and Bioengineering; 2002, Vol: 77, No: 4; 369-380

Olson JE, Li GZ. Increased Potassium Chloride and Taurine Conductances in Astrocytes During Hypoosmotic Swelling. Glia 1997; 20: 254-261.

Tennant GB. Stimulation of Myeloid Colony Growth from Peripheral Blood by Medium with an Initially Low Osmolality. International Journal of Cell Cloning 1990; 8: 123-129.

Werner RG, Noe W. Mammalian Cell Cultures Part I: Characterization , Morphology and Metabolism. Arzneimittel-Forschung / Drug Research 1993; 43: 1134-1139.

Woolverton WS, Githerns S, et al. Rat Renal Papillary Tissue Explants Survive and Produce Epithelial Monolayers in Culture Media Made Hyperosmotic with Sodium Chloride and Urea. Journal of Experimental Zoology 1990; 256: 189-199.

Yagil C, Sladek CD. Effect of Extended Exposure to Hypertonicity on Vasopressin Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Content in Hypothalamo... Endocrinology 1990; 127: 1428-1435.

Yagil C, Sladek CD. Osmotic Regulation of Vasopressin and Oxytocin Release is Rate Sensitive in Hypothalamoneneurohypophysial Explants. American Journal of Physiology 1990; 258: 492-500.


Freeze Tolerance in Agriculture
Burke, M.J., L.V. Gusta, H.A. Quamme, C.J. Weiser, and P.H. Li. 1976. Freezing and injury in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 27:507-528.

Flower, T.J. and M.M. Ludlow. 1986. Contribution of osmotic adjustment to dehydration tolerance of water-stressed pigeonpea (Cajanus caja (L.) millsp.) leaves. Plant Cell Environ. 9:33-40.

Guy, C.L. 1990. Cold acclimation and freezing stress tolerance: role of protein metabolism. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 41:187-223.

Hincha, D.K., U. Sonnewald, L. Willmitzer, and J.M. Schmitt 1996. The role of sugar accumulation in leaf hardiness investigations with transgenic tobacco expressing a bacterial pyrophosphatase or a yeast invertase gene. J. Plant Physiol. 147: 604-610.

Karakas, B. 1996. Investigating the role of polyols in plant environmental stress tolerance through transformation with a gene for mannitol production. MS Thesis, Univ. of Georgia, Athens.

Kroner, C. and Larcher, W. 1988. Plant Life in Cold Climates, pp. 25-57. In: (Long S.P., F.I Woodward (eds)): Plants and temperature. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. Vol. 42, 1988. The Company of Biologists Limited, Cambridge.

Levitt, J. 1980. Responses of Plants to Environmental Stress, Vol. I. Chilling, freezing and high temperature stresses. 2nd edition, New York, Academic Press.

Morgan, J.M. 1984. Osmoregulation and water stress in higher plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 33:299-319.

Neven, L.G., D.W. Haskell, A. Hugif, Q.B. Li, and C.L. Guy 1993. Characterization of a spinach gene responsive to low temperature and water stress. Plant Molecular Biology, 21:291-305.

O'Neill, S.D. 1983. Osmotic adjustment and the development of freezing resistance in Fragaria virginiana. Plant Physiol. 72:938-44.

Pilon-Smits, E.A.H., M.J.M. Ebskamp, M.J. Paul, M.J.W. Jeuken, P. J. Weisbeek, and C.M. Smeekens 1995. Improved performance of transgenic fructan-accumulating tobacco under drought stress. Plant Physiol. 107: 125-30.

Rieger, M. and F. Marra 1994. Responses of young peach trees to root confinement. J. Amer. Soc.Hort. Sci. 119: 223-228.

Raese, J.T., M.W. Williams, and H.D. Billingsley 1978. Cold hardiness, sorbitol and sugar level of apple shoots as influenced by controlled temperature and season. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 103(6): 796-801.

Sakai A., and W. Larcher. 1987. Frost survival of plants: The freezing process and freezing injuries in plants. In: Ecological Studies; (eds.) W.D. Billings, F. Golley, O.L Cange, J.S. Olson, H. Remmert. Berlin-Verlag, V.62.

Stout, D.G., P.L. Steponkus, and R.M. Cotts. 1977. Quantitative study of the importance of water permeability in plant cold hardiness. Plant Physiol. 60:374-378.

Tarczynski M., R.G. Jensen, H.J. Bohnert. 1993. Stress protection of transgenic tobacco by the osmolyte mannitol. Science 259:508-510.

Vierling, E. and Kimpel, J. A. 1992. Plant responses to environmental stress. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 3:164-70

Williams, R.J. 1981. Frost desiccation: an osmotic model. In: C.R. Olien and M.N. Smith (eds.) Analysis and improvement of plant cold hardiness. CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp. 89-11.

Yakushiji, H., H. Nomani, T. Fukuyama, S. Ono, N. Takagi, Y. Hashimoto 1996. Sugar accumulation enhanced by osmoregulation in satsuma mandarin fruit. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 121(3): 446- 72.

Yelenosky, G. and C.L. Guy. 1989. Freezing tolerance of citrus, spinach, and petunia leaf tissue. Osmotic adjustment and sensitivity to freeze induced cellular dehydration. Plant Physiol. 89:444-45.


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Pharmacy Bibliography

Pharmaceutical Applications for Osmometers
Suzuki, M.; Ito, K.; Fushimi, C.; Kondo, T.: A study of cyclodextrin complex formation by a freezing point depression method; Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin (TOKYO) VOL.41, NO.5, P.942-945; 1993

Suzuki, K.; Price, J. C.: Microencapsulation And Dissolution Properties of a Neuroleptic in a Biodegradable Polymer, Poly(RACEMIC LACTIDE); Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences; VOL.74, NO.1, P.21-24 ; 1985

Lord, R. C. C.: Osmosis, osmometry, and osmoregulation; Postgraduate Medical Journal; 1999 VOL. 75; NO. 880, PP. 67-73

Coates, A. L.; Macneish, C. F., et al: A comparison of the availability of tobramycin for inhalation from vented vs unvented nebulizers; 1998; Chest; VOL. 113, NO. 4; PP. 951-956

Suzuki, M.; Ito, K., et al: The freezing point depression method for the determination of binding parameters of drugs by polyvinylpyrrolidine and polyoxyethylene n-dodecylether; Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo); 1993; VOL. 41, NO. 9; PP. 1616-1620

Suzuki, M.; Ito, K., et al: A study of 1:1 Plus 1:2 complexes between barbiturate and alpha-cyclodextrin using the freezing point depression method; Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo) 1993; VOL. 41, NO. 8; PP. 1444-1447

Food and Beverage: Fermentation
D'Amore T, Panchal CJ, et al. A study of ethanol tolerance in yeast. Crit. Rev. Biotechnology 1990; 9: 287-304.

Casey GP, Magnus CA, et al.. High-gravity brewing: Effects of nutrition on yeast composition, fermentative ability, and alcohol production. Appl. Environmental Microbiol. 1984; 48: 639-46.

D'Amore T, Panchal CJ, et al. A study of ethanol tolerance in yeast. Crit. Rev. Biotechnology 1990; 9: 287-304.

D'Amore T, Crumplen R, et al. The involvement of trehalose in yeast stress tolerance. Jnl. Industrial Microbiology 1991; 7: 191-96.

D'Amore T. Improving yeast fermentation performance. Jnl. Inst. Brewing 1992; 98: 375-82.

Jabarit A. Physiological requirements and viability of 5 mixed cultures in freeze-concentrated media and media enriched with protective substances and growth factors. Lait 1971; 51: 437-453.

Lewis MJ, Kuiper HA. Effect of growth temperature and glucose on thermal injury of saccaromyces calsbergensis. Jnl. Institute of Brewing 1972; 78: 465-70.

Nishino H, Miyazaki S, et al. Effect of osmotic pressure on the growth rate and fermentation activity of wine yeasts. Am. Jnl. Enol. Vitic. 1985; 36: 170-174.

Owades JL. The role of osmotic pressure in high and low gravity fermentations. Technical Quarterly , Master Brewers Assn. of the Americas 1981; 18: 163-65.

Piendl A. Composition of German alcohol free, bottom fermented, low garvity beer. Brauwelt International 1991; 136-38.

Piendl A. Nonalcoholic beers worldwide (Part 3): German bottom-fermented low gravity beers, bottom-fermented beers with low original gravity, and top-fermented beers. Brauwelt 1994; 134: 1482-92.

Piendl A, Schuster C, et al. The osmotic pressure of sports beverages and nonalcoholic beers. Brauwelt 1994; 134: 2756-58,2783.

Piendl A. Nonalcoholic beers worldwide (Part 6): German bottom-fermented beers with high original wort. Brauwelt 1995; 135: 364-71.

Price A, Buehler T. Ethanol production in strains of saccharomyces cerevisiae: A literature review. Brauwelt 1995; 135: 655-62, 664.

Piendl A. Alcohol-free beers worldwide (Part 10): German botton fermentation beer. Brauwelt 1995; Vol. 135: 1950-52, 1967.

Suarez JA, Bravo F, et al. Microbiological study of concentrated grape musts and its industrial application (Part 2): Osmophilic yeasts and their physiology. Alimentaria 1982; 25-29.

Zheng H, D'Amore T, et al. Factors influencing maltotriose utilization during brewery wort fermentations. Jnl. Am. Soc. Brewing Chemists 1994; 52: 41-47.

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Hospital Admixture Bibliography

Citations:

Bloss, C.S., Sybert, K., Osmolality of Commercially Available Oral Liquid Drug Preparations. ASHP Annual Meeting, 48:35 1991

Crane, V.S., Significance of Osmoticity in Antibiotic Small Volume Parenterals. Drug Intelligence, Clinical Pharmacology, 21:830 1987

Cunningham, D.G., Osmoticity, Osmolality, Osmolarity and Tonicity-Hospital Pharmacy Applications. South Africa Pharm. Jnl., 55: 54 1988

Dickerson, R.N. Melnik, G., Osmolality of Oral Drug Solutions and Suspensions. Am. Jnl. of Hospital Pharmacy, 45:832 1988

Hall, W.E., Some Applications of Osmometry to Pharmacy. Am. Jnl. Pharmaceutical Education, p. 204

Kirschenbaum, B., Concerns about Dry Partial-Fill Containers. Am Jnl. of Hospital Pharmacy, 43:316 1986

Lau, N.C., Sagraves, R., Allen, L.V., Osmolality Determinations of Intravenous Medications and Small Volume Admixtures for Pediatric Patients. ASHP Midyear Meeting, 26:584 1991

Mostert, J.W., The pH and Osmolality of Intravenously Used Drugs. JAMA, 216:1843 1971

Murty, R., Kapoor, J. Applications of the Osmometer in the Manufacture of Certain Parenteral Preparations. Pharmaceutical Technology, p. 37, July 1977

Santiero, M.L., Sagraves, R., Allen, L.V., Osmolality of Small Volume IV Admixtures for Pediatric Patients. Am. Jnl. of Hospital Pharmacy, 47: 1359 1990

Smith, E., Brock, A.P., The Effect of Reduced Osmolarity on Platinum Drug Toxicity. British Journal of Cancer, 59 (6): 873 1989

Imaging and Contrast Materials
Swanson is an early champion of recognizing the reduced risk of "hypersensitivity reaction" by the use of low-osmolality contrast materials. He stops short of recommending system-wide conversion, due to its significantly higher cost. His "Drug Review" article has a good summary of hypersensitivity reactions on page 881.

Complicating the picture is the Doorey report which, while anecdotal, offers the cautionary view that there is a recognized higher incidence of thrombus formation at the catheter tip, with the use of low-osmolal media. He cites a "Consensus Opinion Regarding Use of Low Osmolar Contrast Agents" from the Society of Cardiac Angiography.

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Sports Medicine Bibliography

Boxers Face Regular Weight Checks
(News items from the BBC Sports Network documents the dangers of rapid weight loss in the boxing profession. Source: BBC Sports)

Monitor Horse Health for Summer Olympics (A current events news item outlines the importance of monitoring equine weight loss during heavy exertion for the upcoming Summer Olympics in Atlanta. Source: Science News)

Wrestling Rules Changes Address Dehydration (An NCAA news release summarizes proposed rules changes to govern weight loss among collegiate wrestlers. Source: NCAA)


Dehydration and Heat Illness (A current news item summarizes the dangers of heat-induced dehydration. Source: Survive Outdoors, Inc.)

The Hydration Story (Why proper hydration enables more efficient energy conversion. Source:)

The Importance of Water in the Body
(A synopsis of the importance of proper hydration to meet athletic needs. Source: WWAROG.com)

Hyperthermia and Dehydration-Related Deaths Associated with Intentional Rapid Weight Loss in Three Collegiate Wrestlers -- North Carolina, Wisconsin, and Michigan, November-December 1997

November 7-December 9, 1997, three previously healthy collegiate wrestlers in different states died while each was engaged in a program of rapid weight loss to qualify for competition. In the hours preceding the official weigh-in, all three wrestlers engaged in a similar rapid weight-loss regimen that promoted dehydration through perspiration and resulted in hyperthermia. The wrestlers restricted food and fluid intake and attempted to maximize sweat losses by wearing vapor-impermeable suits under cotton warm-up suits and exercising vigorously in hot environments. This report summarizes the investigation of these three cases.
Click here for complete article



Athletic Hydration

Anderson, JV, Bloom, SRC, et al: “Hyponatremia and Ultramarathons (letter)” Journal of American Medicine Association 213 (1911): 256(2).

Brandenberger G, Candas V, et al. The influence of the initial state of hydration on the endocrine responses to exercise in the heat. Eur. J. Appl. Physiology 1989; 58: 674-79.

Brouns F, Saris WH, et al. Abdominal complaints and gastrointestinal function during long lasting exercise. Int. J. Sports Medicine 1989; 8: 175-189.

Coggan AR, Coyle EF. Effect of carbohydrate feedings during high intensity exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 1988; 65: 1703-09.

Convertino VA, Keil LC, et al. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 1981; 50: 123-28.

Cosgrove, MJ, Howells, SJ, et al: The Effect of Hydration Status on Cycling Performance *full citation needed

Coyle EF, Hagberg JM, et al. Carbohydrate feeding during prolonged strenuous exercise can delay fatigue. J. Appl. Physiol. 1983; 55: 230-35.

Deuster PA, Chrousos GP, et al. Hormonal and metabolic responses of untrained, moderately trained, and highly trained men to three exercise intensities. Metabolism 1989; 38: 141-48.

Deuster PA, Singh A, et al. Hormonal response to ingesting water or a carbohydrate beverage during a 2h run. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1992; 24: 72-9.

Frizzell, R. T., G. H. Lang, D. C. Lowance, and S. R. Lathan. “Hyponatremia and Ultramarathon Running.” JAMA (1986): 255(6).

Hargreaves M, Briggs CA. Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on exercise metabolism. J. Appl. Physiol. 1988; 65: 1553-58.

Hiller, W. D. B., M. L. O’Toole, and R. H. Laird. “Hyponatremia and Ultramarathons [letter].” JAMA (1986): 256(2).

Kay, D., Marino, F.E., Fluid ingestion and exercise hyperthermia: implications for performance, thermoregulation, metabolism, and the development of fatigue. Jnl of Sports Sciences, 2000, 18: 71-82

Luger A, Deuster PA, et al. Acute hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal responses to the stress of treadmill exercise: physiologic adaptations to physical training. N. Eng. J. Med. 1987; 316: 1309-15.

MMWR, Hyperthermia and Dehydration-Related Deaths Associated With Intentional Rapid Weight Loss in Three Collegiate Wrestlers; 1998; (47) 105-108

Mitchell JB, Costill DL, et al. Influence on carbohydrate ingestion on counterregulatory hormones during prolonged exercise. Int. J. Sports Med. 1990; 11: 33-36.

Nose, H., G. W. Mack, X. R. Shi, and E. R. Nadel. “Role of Osmolality and Plasma Volume during Rehydration in Humans.” Journal of Applied Physiology (1988): 65(1).

Owen MD, Kregel KC, et al. Effects of ingesting carbohydrate beverages during exercise in the heat. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1986; 18: 568-75.

Pollock, Davies and Godfrey: Urine Osmolality in World Class Athletes Making Weight. The Physiologist 1996; 39: 5.A53

Pollock, Godfrey and Reilley: Evaluation of Field Measurements of Urine Concentration. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1997; 29: 5.S261

Sawka: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24: 657-670

Seiple RS, Vivian VM, et al. Gastric emptying characteristics of two glucose polymer-electrolyte solutions. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1983; 15: 366-69.

Schrier RW, Berl T, et al. Osmotic and nonosmotic control of vasopressin release. Am. J. Physiol. 1979; 236: F321-F332.

Shirreffs, S.M., and Maughan, R: Urine Osmolality and Conductivity as Indices of Hydration Status in Athletes in the Heat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1998; 30: 1598-1602

Viinamaki O, Heinonen OJ, et al. Glucose polymer syrup attenuates prolonged endurance exercise-induced vasopressin release. Acta Physiol. Scan. 1989; 136: 69-73.

Wheeler KB, Banwell JG. Intestinal water and electrolyte flux of glucose polymer electrolyte solutions. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1986; 18: 436-39.

Wade CE, Claybaugh JR. Plasma renin activity, vasopressin concentration, and urine excretory responses to exercise in men. J. Appl. Physiol. 1980; 49: 930-36.

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