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Sports Medicine Bibliography

Boxers Face Regular Weight Checks
(News items from the BBC Sports Network documents the dangers of rapid weight loss in the boxing profession. Source: BBC Sports)

Monitor Horse Health for Summer Olympics (A current events news item outlines the importance of monitoring equine weight loss during heavy exertion for the upcoming Summer Olympics in Atlanta. Source: Science News)

Wrestling Rules Changes Address Dehydration (An NCAA news release summarizes proposed rules changes to govern weight loss among collegiate wrestlers. Source: NCAA)

Dehydration and Heat Illness (A current news item summarizes the dangers of heat-induced dehydration. Source: Survive Outdoors, Inc.)

The Hydration Story (Why proper hydration enables more efficient energy conversion. Source:)

The Importance of Water in the Body
(A synopsis of the importance of proper hydration to meet athletic needs. Source:

Hyperthermia and Dehydration-Related Deaths Associated with Intentional Rapid Weight Loss in Three Collegiate Wrestlers -- North Carolina, Wisconsin, and Michigan, November-December 1997

November 7-December 9, 1997, three previously healthy collegiate wrestlers in different states died while each was engaged in a program of rapid weight loss to qualify for competition. In the hours preceding the official weigh-in, all three wrestlers engaged in a similar rapid weight-loss regimen that promoted dehydration through perspiration and resulted in hyperthermia. The wrestlers restricted food and fluid intake and attempted to maximize sweat losses by wearing vapor-impermeable suits under cotton warm-up suits and exercising vigorously in hot environments. This report summarizes the investigation of these three cases.
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Athletic Hydration

Anderson, JV, Bloom, SRC, et al: “Hyponatremia and Ultramarathons (letter)” Journal of American Medicine Association 213 (1911): 256(2).

Brandenberger G, Candas V, et al. The influence of the initial state of hydration on the endocrine responses to exercise in the heat. Eur. J. Appl. Physiology 1989; 58: 674-79.

Brouns F, Saris WH, et al. Abdominal complaints and gastrointestinal function during long lasting exercise. Int. J. Sports Medicine 1989; 8: 175-189.

Coggan AR, Coyle EF. Effect of carbohydrate feedings during high intensity exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 1988; 65: 1703-09.

Convertino VA, Keil LC, et al. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 1981; 50: 123-28.

Cosgrove, MJ, Howells, SJ, et al: The Effect of Hydration Status on Cycling Performance *full citation needed

Coyle EF, Hagberg JM, et al. Carbohydrate feeding during prolonged strenuous exercise can delay fatigue. J. Appl. Physiol. 1983; 55: 230-35.

Deuster PA, Chrousos GP, et al. Hormonal and metabolic responses of untrained, moderately trained, and highly trained men to three exercise intensities. Metabolism 1989; 38: 141-48.

Deuster PA, Singh A, et al. Hormonal response to ingesting water or a carbohydrate beverage during a 2h run. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1992; 24: 72-9.

Frizzell, R. T., G. H. Lang, D. C. Lowance, and S. R. Lathan. “Hyponatremia and Ultramarathon Running.” JAMA (1986): 255(6).

Hargreaves M, Briggs CA. Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on exercise metabolism. J. Appl. Physiol. 1988; 65: 1553-58.

Hiller, W. D. B., M. L. O’Toole, and R. H. Laird. “Hyponatremia and Ultramarathons [letter].” JAMA (1986): 256(2).

Kay, D., Marino, F.E., Fluid ingestion and exercise hyperthermia: implications for performance, thermoregulation, metabolism, and the development of fatigue. Jnl of Sports Sciences, 2000, 18: 71-82

Luger A, Deuster PA, et al. Acute hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal responses to the stress of treadmill exercise: physiologic adaptations to physical training. N. Eng. J. Med. 1987; 316: 1309-15.

MMWR, Hyperthermia and Dehydration-Related Deaths Associated With Intentional Rapid Weight Loss in Three Collegiate Wrestlers; 1998; (47) 105-108

Mitchell JB, Costill DL, et al. Influence on carbohydrate ingestion on counterregulatory hormones during prolonged exercise. Int. J. Sports Med. 1990; 11: 33-36.

Nose, H., G. W. Mack, X. R. Shi, and E. R. Nadel. “Role of Osmolality and Plasma Volume during Rehydration in Humans.” Journal of Applied Physiology (1988): 65(1).

Owen MD, Kregel KC, et al. Effects of ingesting carbohydrate beverages during exercise in the heat. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1986; 18: 568-75.

Pollock, Davies and Godfrey: Urine Osmolality in World Class Athletes Making Weight. The Physiologist 1996; 39: 5.A53

Pollock, Godfrey and Reilley: Evaluation of Field Measurements of Urine Concentration. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1997; 29: 5.S261

Sawka: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24: 657-670

Seiple RS, Vivian VM, et al. Gastric emptying characteristics of two glucose polymer-electrolyte solutions. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1983; 15: 366-69.

Schrier RW, Berl T, et al. Osmotic and nonosmotic control of vasopressin release. Am. J. Physiol. 1979; 236: F321-F332.

Shirreffs, S.M., and Maughan, R: Urine Osmolality and Conductivity as Indices of Hydration Status in Athletes in the Heat. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1998; 30: 1598-1602

Viinamaki O, Heinonen OJ, et al. Glucose polymer syrup attenuates prolonged endurance exercise-induced vasopressin release. Acta Physiol. Scan. 1989; 136: 69-73.

Wheeler KB, Banwell JG. Intestinal water and electrolyte flux of glucose polymer electrolyte solutions. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1986; 18: 436-39.

Wade CE, Claybaugh JR. Plasma renin activity, vasopressin concentration, and urine excretory responses to exercise in men. J. Appl. Physiol. 1980; 49: 930-36.